Términos relacionados con la diversidad funcional beginning with S

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Sanfilippo syndrome search for term

Sanfilippo syndrome, or mucopolysaccharidosis III (MPS-III) is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disease. It is caused by a deficiency in one of the enzymes needed to break down the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) heparan sulfate (which is found in the extra-cellular matrix and on cell surface glycoproteins).

Source: Wikipedia

Science fiction film search for term

Science fiction film (or sci-fi) is a genre that uses speculative, fictional science-based depictions of phenomena that are not fully accepted by mainstream science, such as extraterrestrial lifeforms, alien worlds, extrasensory perception and time travel, along with futuristic elements such as spacecraft, robots, cyborgs, interstellar travel or other technologies. Science fiction films have often been used to focus on political or social issues, and to explore philosophical issues like the human condition. In many cases, tropes derived from written science fiction may be used by filmmakers ignorant of or at best indifferent to the standards of scientific plausibility and plot logic to which written science fiction is traditionally held.

Source: Wikipedia

Senescence search for term

Senescence (from Latin: senescere, meaning “to grow old,” from senex) or biological aging is the process of accumulative changes to molecular and cellular structure that disrupts metabolism with the passage of time, resulting in deterioration and death. Senescence occurs both on the level of the whole organism (organismal senescence) as well as on the level of its individual cells (cellular senescence). The science of biological aging is biogerontology. Albeit indirectly, senescence is by far the leading cause of death. Of the roughly 150,000 people who die each day across the globe, about two thirds—100,000 per day—die of age-related causes; in industrialized nations, moreover, the proportion is much higher, reaching 90%. Senescence is not the inevitable fate of all organisms, and animal organisms of some groups (taxa) even experience chronological decrease in mortality, for all or part of their life cycle. On the other extreme are accelerated aging diseases, rare in humans. There are a number of hypotheses as to why senescence occurs; for example, some posit it is programmed by gene expression changes, others that it is the cumulative damage caused by biological processes. Whether senescence as a biological process itself can be slowed down, halted or even reversed, is a subject of current scientific speculation and research-
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Senescence)

Senile plaques search for term

Senile plaques (also known as neuritic plaques) are extracellular deposits of amyloid beta in the grey matter of the brain. Degenerative neural structures and an abundance of microglia and astrocytes can be associated with senile plaque deposits. These deposits can also be a byproduct of senescence (ageing). However, large numbers of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are characteristic features of Alzheimer's disease. Abnormal neurites in senile plaques are composed primarily of paired helical filaments, a component of neurofibrillary tangles. The plaques are variable in shape and size, but are on average 50 µm in size. In Alzheimer's disease they are primarily composed of amyloid beta peptides. These polypeptides tend to aggregate and are believed to be neurotoxic.

Source: Wikipedia

Sense search for term

Senses are physiological capacities of organisms that provide data for perception. The senses and their operation, classification, and theory are overlapping topics studied by a variety of fields, most notably neuroscience, cognitive psychology (or cognitive science), and philosophy of perception. The nervous system has a specific sensory system or organ, dedicated to each sense.
Source and more info: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sense)

Sign language search for term

Sign language (also known as signed language) is a language that uses manual communication to convey meaning. This can include simultaneously employing hand gestures, movement, orientation of the fingers, arms or body, and facial expressions to convey a speaker's ideas. Sign languages often share significant similarities with their respective spoken language (such as ASL and American English). Grammar and sentence structure, however, may vary to encourage efficiency and fluidity in speaking. It is important to note that just because a spoken language is intelligible transnationally (e.g. The United States and The United Kingdom, which both use forms of English), does not mean that the sign languages from those regions are as well. For example, ASL and BSL were formed independently and are therefore unintelligible. Linguists consider both spoken and signed communication to be types of natural language, meaning that both emerged through an abstract, protracted aging process and evolved over time without meticulous planning. Sign language should not be confused with "body language", a type of nonverbal communication.

Source: Wikipedia

SignWriting search for term

Sutton SignWriting, or simply, SignWriting, is a system of writing sign languages. It is highly featural and visually iconic, both in the shapes of the characters, which are abstract pictures of the hands, face, and body, and in their spatial arrangement on the page, which does not follow a sequential order like the letters that make up written English words. It was developed in 1974 by Valerie Sutton, a dancer who had two years earlier developed DanceWriting.

Source: Wikipedia

Social economy search for term

A social economy is a third sector among economies between the private (business) and public sectors (government). It includes organizations such as cooperatives, nonprofit organizations and charities.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_economy)

Social enterprise search for term

A social enterprise is an organization that applies commercial strategies to maximize improvements in human and environmental well-being, rather than maximising profits for external shareholders. Social enterprises can be structured as a for-profit or non-profit, and may take the form of a co-operative, mutual organization, a disregarded entity, a social business, or a charity organization.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_enterprise)

Social exclusion search for term

Social exclusion (also referred to as marginalisation) is a concept used in many parts of the world to characterise contemporary forms of social disadvantage and relegation to the fringe of society. It is a term used widely in the United Kingdom and Europe, and was first utilized in France. It is used across disciplines including education, sociology, psychology, politics and economics.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_exclusion)

Social integration search for term

Social integration is the blending and unifying of social groups, most commonly seen in the desegregation of races throughout history (See Slave Trade, Civil Rights). Integration in sociology and other social sciences is more precisely the movement of minority groups such as ethnic minorities, refugees and underprivileged sections of a society into the mainstream of societies. Social integration requires proficiency in an accepted common language of the society, acceptance of the laws of the society and adoption of a common set of values of the society. It does not require assimilation and it does not require persons to give up all of their culture, but it may require to forgo some aspects of their culture which are inconsistent with the laws and values of the society. In tolerant and open societies, members of minority groups can often use social integration to gain full access to the opportunities, rights and services available to the members of the mainstream of society.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_integration)

Social technology search for term

Social technology is applying technology for specific social purposes: to ease social procedures via social software and social hardware, which might include the use of computers and information technology for governmental procedures, etc. It has historically referred to two meanings: as a term related to social engineering, a meaning that began in the 19th century, and as a description of social software, a meaning that began in the early 21st century.

Source: Wikipedia

Sociology search for term

Sociology is the scientific study of human social behavior and its origins, development, organizations, and institutions.[1] It is a social science which uses various methods of empirical investigation[2] and critical analysis[3] to develop a body of knowledge about human social actions, social structure and functions. A goal for many sociologists is to conduct research which may be applied directly to social policy and welfare, while others focus primarily on refining the theoretical understanding of social processes. Subject matter ranges from the micro level of individual agency and interaction to the macro level of systems and the social structure.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sociology)

Special education search for term

Special education or special needs education is the practice of educating students with special needs in a way that addresses their individual differences and needs. Ideally, this process involves the individually planned and systematically monitored arrangement of teaching procedures, adapted equipment and materials, accessible settings, and other interventions designed to help learners with special needs achieve a higher level of personal self-sufficiency and success in school and community than would be available if the student were only given access to a typical classroom education.
Source: Wikipedia (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special_education)

Speech-language pathology search for term

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a Speech-language pathologist (SLP), also called speech and language therapist, or speech therapist, who specializes in the evaluation and treatment of communication disorders and swallowing disorders.
Source: Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech-language_pathology)

Spina bifida search for term

One of the first parts of the body to develop is the central nervous system. The neural tube, from which the spinal cord and brain develop, is formed within the first 25 to 28 days of pregnancy. Spina Bifida is caused by the failure of the neural tube to develop properly, hence the term 'neural tube defects'. Related defects are anencephaly (the absence of a brain) and encephalocele (a malformation of the brain and skull).
Source: International Federation for Spina Bifida and Hydrocephalus (http://www.ifglobal.org/en/spina-bifida)

Spinal cord injury search for term

The term ‘spinal cord injury’ refers to damage to the spinal cord resulting from trauma (e.g. a car crash) or from disease or degeneration (e.g. cancer). There is no reliable estimate of global prevalence, but estimated annual global incidence is 40 to 80 cases per million population. Up to 90% of these cases are due to traumatic causes, though the proportion of non-traumatic spinal cord injury appears to be growing.

Symptoms of spinal cord injury depend on the severity of injury and its location on the spinal cord. Symptoms may include partial or complete loss of sensory function or motor control of arms, legs and/or body. The most severe spinal cord injury affects the systems that regulate bowel or bladder control, breathing, heart rate and blood pressure. Most people with spinal cord injury experience chronic pain.

Source: World Health Organization

Stem cells search for term

Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more stem cells. They are found in multicellular organisms. In mammals, there are two broad types of stem cells: embryonic stem cells, which are isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts, and adult stem cells, which are found in various tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing adult tissues. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all the specialized cells—ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm (see induced pluripotent stem cells)—but also maintain the normal turnover of regenerative organs, such as blood, skin, or intestinal tissues.

Source: Wikipedia

Stem-cell therapy search for term

Stem-cell therapy is the use of stem cells to treat or prevent a disease or condition. Bone marrow transplant is the most widely used stem-cell therapy, but some therapies derived from umbilical cord blood are also in use. Research is underway to develop various sources for stem cells, and to apply stem-cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases and conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, and other conditions.

Source: Wikipedia

Stimulation-oriented treatments search for term

Stimulation-oriented treatments include art, music and pet therapies, exercise, and any other kind of recreational activities for patients. Stimulation has modest support for improving behavior, mood, and, to a lesser extent, function. Nevertheless, as important as these effects are, the main support for the use of stimulation therapies is the improvement in the patient daily life routine they suppose.
Source: Wikipedia

Study skills search for term

Study skills, academic skills, or study strategies are approaches applied to learning. They are generally critical to success in school, considered essential for acquiring good grades, and useful for learning throughout one's life.
Source: Wikipedia

Surgical technology search for term

Surgical technology is an allied health profession. Surgical technologists are responsible for surgical instruments and other equipment in the surgical unit. They assist a variety of personnel in the surgical area, including surgeons and registered nurses.

Source: Encyclopedia.com